Cavities (Tooth Decay)
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Caries is a common dental disease that occurs in children, adolescents and adults. According to statistics, in Russia it is diagnosed in 98-99% of the population over the age of 35.
AESTHET Clinic, located in UAE, offers caries treatment services. Contact us and we will solve the problems using modern techniques.
Main symptoms of dental caries
Tooth decay is a disease of the tooth in which its tissue is destroyed and a cavity forms. It is easy to recognize its signs:
- The enamel color changes first, usually darkening, but it may also have a light chalky spot;
- then its structure changes, the tooth surface becomes rough;
- The tooth enamel is destroyed, and then the dentin underneath begins to break down, creating a cavity or, as it is known in layman's terms, a hole.
As the enamel and dentin deteriorate, the tooth becomes more sensitive. It reacts painfully to temperature and taste stimuli. There may also be an unpleasant rotten breath odor. Aesthetic problems arise, the patient does not want to open his mouth wide, smile so that others do not see the diseased teeth.
If caries is left untreated, the disease will affect the pulp, the fibrous connective tissue underneath the layers of enamel and dentin. It contains many nerve endings, so the pain will become worse. Over time, the tooth will completely collapse.
There may also be complications:
- Periodontitis - inflammation of the tissue surrounding the tooth;
- Periostitis is an inflammation of the periosteum of the jaw;
- Osteomyelitis is a purulent inflammation of the jaw tissue.
Cavities contribute to the onset and development of sore throat, sinusitis, gastrointestinal diseases, and worsen the condition of the skin on the face.
Types and classifications of dental caries
Several types of the disease are distinguished.
- superficial caries, also called the "spot stage" - light or dark spots appear on the enamel, but a cavity has not yet formed, there are no painful sensations;
- Initial - a carious cavity has appeared, which affects the upper layer of enamel;
- medium - the lesion extends to the dentin, pain is felt;
- deep - the enamel and dentin are severely destroyed, the cavity is deeper, there is pain, which is difficult to tolerate.
By degree of localization:
- Fissure - develops in the natural grooves on the surface of the teeth;
- Neck - carious foci are located in the area of contact between the teeth and the gum;
- Interdental - affects the spaces between the teeth, most commonly the front teeth.
- Primary caries - occurs in an area that has not previously been exposed to the disease;
- Secondary - inflammation that develops under the filling, installed in the treated carious cavity, or under the crown.
Causes of tooth decay
The disease is caused by bacteria. They produce acids that leach calcium and fluoride from the tooth tissue, a process called demineralization. Decay is especially common in areas that are difficult to clean. Plaque builds up there and provides a breeding ground for bacteria.
Many factors influence the rate of enamel and dentin breakdown:
- the body's individual resistance;
- Inadequate or no oral hygiene;
- calcium and fluoride deficiency in the body;
- bite abnormalities, misalignment of the dentition;
- hormonal changes;
- immune disorders;
- Consumption of large amounts of food and drinks with high sugar and carbohydrate content;
- vitamin deficiencies;
- low salivation - saliva contains substances that neutralize acids produced by bacteria;
- poor quality drinking water;
Often the doctor can easily identify the disease by visual inspection at the first consultation. He uses probing, palpation and percussion of the tooth, pays attention to the presence of stains on the enamel, roughness of the surface.
Other methods are also used:
- Transillumination - if the patient complains of caries symptoms, but on visual inspection the signs of the disease are not visible, the dentist directs a bright beam of light at the tooth: in this case, the boundaries of the affected area will be better visible;
- A caries marker that helps rule out fluorosis and hypoplasia - a special dye drips off a healthy tooth, but remains on the affected area, penetrating the pores;
- X-ray - gives the opportunity to detect hidden deep caries;
- laser diagnostics - an alternative to X-ray examination;
- electroodontometry - necessary to distinguish caries from pulpitis, consists in the fact that the doctor applies an electric current to the pulp and monitors the patient's pain sensations.
Modern treatments for dental caries
Non-invasive treatments may be effective in the superficial stage. These are:
- Remineralization of enamel - pastes with high fluoride and calcium content are rubbed into the affected area, it takes 10-14 sessions to eliminate the carious spot;
- Icon infiltration is a gel that is applied to the surface of the tooth and exposed to ultraviolet light for a period of time;
- ozone therapy - a cap is placed on the diseased tooth, under which ozone is injected, disinfecting the affected areas and stopping the development of caries.
If the disease has outgrown the spot stage, invasive therapy is required.
In the initial and middle stages, it is sufficient to remove the affected tissue, clean the cavity and close it with a filling.
In case of deep caries, treatment is carried out in several stages.
First, the doctor removes the affected tissues, cleans the cavity and root canals, puts a medicament in them. A temporary filling is placed.
At your next appointment, the dentist removes the temporary filling, cleans the tooth canals and fills them. A permanent filling is then placed.
The service life of a modern light-cured filling made of composite material is 5-7 years with proper care. After that, it will need to be replaced.
Treatment of caries of 1 tooth
Traditionally, the following protocol has been used.
- Local anesthesia.
- Carious cavity preparation - the doctor removes the affected tissue using a drill.
- Treatment of the cleaned cavity with antiseptic compositions.
- Installing the seal.
- Shaping, grinding and polishing of the filling to the optimum shape.
For the manufacture of fillings, modern composite materials are used, which have the ability to cure quickly under the influence of ultraviolet rays. They are strong and durable, well withstand chewing. Fillings made of them are not conspicuous.
Toothache after treatment
In some cases, patients continue to feel pain after treatment. This can be due to several reasons.
- A natural reaction of the body to dental intervention. Such pain goes away in 1-2 days after the completion of medical manipulations.
- Inflammation of the nerve endings located in the pulp. This is possible with deep caries, when the dentin layer is not completely destroyed, but the inflammatory process has already penetrated deeper. Repeat treatment with pulp removal and filling of the tooth canals is required.
- Inflammation of the ligaments of the tooth - periodontitis. In this case, painful sensations occur when chewing. It is necessary to fill the canals of the tooth with a special therapeutic composition. After it destroys the infection, the doctor performs the final filling.
Are there contraindications to caries treatment?
There is a small list of contraindications. They don't treat tooth decay:
- in acute respiratory diseases - it is necessary to wait until the patient has recovered;
- in acute periodontal disease, which is accompanied by severe bleeding of the gums - first eliminate this pathology;
- if herpes is in the acute stage - you should wait for remission;
- during pregnancy, especially in the first and third trimesters;
- if the patient has neuropsychiatric disorders that do not allow him/her to perceive the doctor's instructions and adequately respond to treatment.
The likelihood of the disease can be reduced by following simple preventive measures. Required:
- Careful oral hygiene - brushing morning and evening, flossing;
- Limit sugar intake - eat fewer sweets, drink fewer sugary drinks;
- chew your food thoroughly;
- Be careful with hard foods that can damage tooth enamel, such as nuts, breadcrumbs, and candy;
- make sure that the diet was complete, and the diet had enough calcium and phosphorus: the first is contained in cottage cheese, sour cream, oatmeal, peas, and the second is found in fish, cottage cheese, cheese;
- take multivitamins to strengthen the immune system.
- Visit the dentist twice a year for a preventive checkup - this allows you to take quick action if the disease has started to develop;
- Have your teeth professionally cleaned at least once a year to remove soft and hard plaque.
The following treatments will be helpful:
- remineralization - restoration of mineral balance of dental tissues with the help of special pastes;
- Fissure sealing - the grooves and pits on the surfaces of the teeth are sealed to prevent plaque from accumulating there.
AESTHET Dental Center invites everyone who needs caries treatment. Great experience and high qualification of doctors, availability of modern equipment for diagnostics and treatment allow us to help even in the most difficult situations. Our dentists perform the necessary manipulations so that the patient does not feel discomfort and pain.
Abduazimova L. S., Jalilova Sh. A., Mukhtorova M. M., Khodjaev S. B. Improvement of methods of caries treatment and its complications. Bulletin of Science and Education. 2022. № 2 (122). Part 1. С. 75-79. Reference: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/usovershenstvovanie-metodov-lecheniya-kariesa-i-ego-oslozhneniy
Zykeeva S. K., Bilisbaeva M. O. Treatment of dental caries in children and adolescents. Bulletin of KazNMU. 2017. № 3. С. 158-162. Reference: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/lechenie-kariesa-zubov-u-detey-i-podrostkov
Manak T. N., Borisenko L. G., Reder. A. S. Choice of materials in the treatment of deep caries: differentiated approach. Modern Dentistry. 2020. № 2. С. 29-35. Reference: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/vybor-materialov-pri-lechenii-glubokogo-kariesa-differentsirovannyy-podhod